C.1 DEMOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS
The survey was mailed to 800 Wyoming households that were randomly selected from telephone listings. Of these 800 surveys, 164 were returned as undeliverable. Thus, we can assume that 636 households received a survey. The percentage of undeliverable surveys (20.5 percent) can be attributed to the following factors: (1) the telephone books used to generate addresses were about one year old, and (2) in 1989 Wyoming lost a substantial part of its population through migration due to the economic conditions in the state.
The original mailing began on November 18, 1989. Those households that did not respond were sent a second survey beginning December 9, 1989. On December 21, a reminder postcard was mailed to those households that still had not responded. Survey responses were cut off as of January 15, 1990, with 345 completed questionnaires returned, which is a 54.25 percent response rate. This response rate is excellent, considering the complexity of the issue and the amount of time it takes to fill out the questionnaire.
The average age of the respondents is 50.71 years; higher than one would expect for the average Wyoming household head. To test for possible bias due to the age of respondents, the sample was divided into two groups: one group contained respondents 50 years or older, and the other group contained those younger than 50 years. Comparing the responses of these two groups to the questions about the importance of different water uses (i.e., Question 1) shows, that the younger group ranks recreational uses and preservation/conservation higher than the older group. On the other hand, the older group placed a higher value on the "traditional" economic uses of water (see Table C.1).29
Seventy-nine percent of those individuals responding for a household were male. The same procedure as described above for different age groups was applied to groups containing male and female responses. The results in Table C.2 show that there are differences in the responses, but no clear pattern is visible.
Tables C.3 through C.10 contain the basic statistic parameters for the background variables asked for in the survey.
C.2 WATER USES AND ISSUES
The first question of the survey asked the respondent to rate the importance of different uses for Wyoming's undeveloped water resources. Between 341 and 331 respondents answered each of these questions, and valued II uses according to their importance on a scale from 5 (very important) to I (not important). Table C.ll shows the means and standard deviations for the answers for different uses.
Similarly, in Question 2, the respondents were asked to evaluate four statements about water policy issues by staling their level of agreement to those statements. Table C.12 shows the statements, the frequencies of different responses, and the median responses.
Respondents were asked to rank the four issues given to them along with any other issues they thought to be important (see Table C.13) Twenty-six respondents ranked issues other
TABLE C.1 Most Important Water Uses by Respondents' Age Group ________________________________________________________________ Average Importance For Respondents With An Age* t-value (Significance Water Use > 50 < 50 Level) ________________________________________________________________ Future Supply 4.29 4.04 2.35 (.019) Municipal Use 4.25 3.89 3.49 (.001) Irrigation 4.11 3.78 2.61 (.009) Industrial Use 3.90 3.58 2.38 (.018) Support High- Unemployment Areas 3.89 3.69 1.63 (.104) Support My Area 3.87 3.72 1.14 (.256) Wild-and-Scenic Preservation 3.72 4.26 -4.25 (.000) Hydroelectric Power Generation 3.71 3.13 4.63 (.000) Preserving Stream Fisheries 3.68 4.19 -4.36 (.000) Flood Control 3.18 2.90 2.10 (.037) Reservoirs for Recreation 2.82 3.12 -2.12 (.035) ________________________________________________________________ * 5 = most important 1 = least important
TABLE C.2 Most Important Water Uses by Respondents' Sex ________________________________________________________________ Average Importance for Responding Who Are* t-value (Significance Water Use Female Male Level) ________________________________________________________________ Irrigation 4.33 3.48 3.57 (.001) Future Supply 4.23 4.16 0.55 (.584) Wild-and-Scenic 4.20 3.93 1.79 (.076) Preservation Municipal Use 4.03 4.08 -0.38 (.702) Preserving Stream Fisheries 3.97 3.94 0.21 (.833) Support High- Unemployment Areas 3.96 3.75 1.48 (.140) Support My Area 3.96 3.75 1.46 (.147) Industrial Use 3.68 3.75 -0.42 (.676) Hydroelectric Power Generation 3.68 3.34 2.24 (.027) Flood Control 3.28 2.97 1.85 (.067) Reservoirs for Recreation 2.84 3.03 -1.06 (.294) ________________________________________________________________ * 5 = most important 1 = least important
TABLE C.3 Background Characteristics of Survey Respondents ________________________________________________________________ Statistic Range Standard Variable Mean Deviation Minimum Maximum ________________________________________________________________ Respondent's Age 50.71 16.66 0 96 Years of Residency 33.39 21.05 1 91 # of People in Household 2.76 1.60 1 9 Years of Schooling 14.03 3.43 6 20 Days of Fishing on Rivers 5.66 10.99 0 90 Days of Fishing in Lakes 4.63 10.07 0 75 Days of Boating 3.19 9.26 0 90 Days of Water Skiing 1.37 6.62 0 90 Days of Swimming 1.84 7.09 0 90 Days of Camping 6.25 10.82 0 90 Days of Hiking 5.30 17.25 0 200 Days of Picnicking 3.93 8.77 0 90 Days of White Water Rafting .38 2.66 0 32 Days of Hunting 4.70 10.25 0 100 Days of Hunting Antelope .65 2.06 0 20 Days of Hunting Elk 1.32 3.09 0 17 Days of Hunting Birds .67 2.35 0 20 Days of Hunting Deer 1.59 3.91 0 45 Days of Hunting Moose .12 .88 0 10 Self Evaluation 3.07 1.12 0 5 ________________________________________________________________
TABLE C.4 Respondents' Occupations ________________________________________________________________ Occupation Frequency Percent ________________________________________________________________ Professionals1 155 44.9 Teachers 19 5.6 Craftsmen 6 1.7 Executives 2 0.6 Self-Employed 16 4.6 Technicians 4 1.2 Clerical 7 2.0 Student 6 1.7 Retired 71 20.6 Housewife 8 2.3 Farmer/Rancher 30 8.7 Missing 21 6.1 Total 345 100.0 ________________________________________________________________ 1This category also includes those respondents that were not clearly members of any of the other categories, and thus appears artificially large as a percentage.
TABLE C.5 Respondents' Sex ________________________________________________________________ Sex Frequency Percent ________________________________________________________________ Female 69 20.0 Male 260 75.4 Missing 16 4.6 Total 345 100.0 ________________________________________________________________
TABLE C.6 Respondents' Place of Birth ________________________________________________________________ Place of Birth Frequency Percent ________________________________________________________________ Wyoming 133 38.6 Out-of-State 198 57.3 Missing 14 4.1 Total 345 100.0 ________________________________________________________________
TABLE C.7 Proportion of Respondents Engaging in Fly Fishing ________________________________________________________________ Fly Fishing Frequency Percent ________________________________________________________________ Yes 128 37.1 No 198 57.4 Missing 19 5.5 Totals 345 100.0 ________________________________________________________________
TABLE C.8 Proportion of Respondents with Memberships in Water Related Organizations ________________________________________________________________ Organization Frequency Percent ________________________________________________________________ Irrigation District 41 11.91 Outdoor Council 12 3.5 Audubon Society 10 2.9 Rural Water District 20 5.8 Sierra Club 10 2.9 Heritage Society 11 3.2 ________________________________________________________________ 1An unusually high percentage of respondents indicated involvement in these water related organizations and activities-so high that some misunderstanding of the nature of the question must be involved.
TABLE C.9 ________________________________________________________________ Respondents' Involvement in Water Development Activities ________________________________________________________________
TABLE C.10 Respondents' Household Incomes ________________________________________________________________ Income Range Frequency Percent ________________________________________________________________ under $10,000 27 7.8 $10,000-$19,999 44 12.1 $20,000-$29,999 75 21.7 $30,000-$39,000 50 14.5 $40,000-$49,000 44 12.8 $50,000-$59,999 33 9.6 $60,000 or more 45 13.0 Missing 27 7.8 Totals 345 100.0 ________________________________________________________________
TABLE C.ll Respondents' Most Important Water Uses ________________________________________________________________ Water Use Mean Standard Deviation ________________________________________________________________ Future Economic Growth 4.17 .93 Municipal Use 4.07 .92 Wild-and-Scenic Preservation 3.99 1.18 Irrigation 3.97 1.15 Preserving Stream Fisheries 3.95 1.06 Alleviate High Unemployment Areas1 3.80 1.09 Support My Local Area1 3.80 1.11 Industrial Use 3.76 1.19 Hydroelectric Power Generation 3.41 1.18 Flood Control 3.06 1.19 Recreational Activities 2.98 1.28 ________________________________________________________________ 1These two uses were excluded from the tabulation in Section 4.0 of the main report for purposes of clarity. They were intended to represent distributional issues, while all other uses did not have this attribute.
TABLE C.12 Respondents' Agreement and Disagreement with Water Policy Statements _________________________________________________________________________________________ Percentage of Respondents Who: Strongly Strongly Statement Agree Agree Indifferent Disagree Disagree Total _________________________________________________________________________________________ Wyoming water projects should be built only if project benefits exceed project costs. 10.7% 32.8% 16.1% 33.0% 7.4% 100.0% Wyoming should develop its water resources before other states take our water, regardless of whether project benefits exceed costs. 34.5 40.7 7.7 12.1 5.0 100.0 Wyoming water projects should be build only if project benefits will be distributed equitably, i.e., not confined to one small area or group of people. 21.5 37.9 15.3 20.9 4.4 100.0 Wyoming must protect some of its rivers from dams and reservoirs to preserve their wild and scenic beauty. 42.1 38.2 8.8 7.1 3.8 100.0 _________________________________________________________________________________________
TABLE C.13 Survey Respondents' Ranking of Most Important Issue Associated with Building Wyoming Water Projects1 _________________________________________________________________________________________ Percent Ranking Issue as the Most Second Most Third Most Fourth Most Issue Important Important Important Important _________________________________________________________________________________________ Will the project, increase Wyoming's "control" over its water resources? 49.3 22.1 15.0 8.1 Will the project disturb the balance between preservation and development of Wyoming's water resources? 19.6 30.1 28.6 15.1 Will the project's benefits be greater than its costs? 13.0 20.6 27.8 30.6 Will the project's benefits be confined to a small group, or be distributed widely across the state? 8.7 18.4 21.1 40.4 Other issues. 9.4 8.8 7.5 5.8 Totals 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% _________________________________________________________________________________________ 1Based upon approximately 275 respondents to this series of questions.
than those given by the survey as most important. Of those 26 issues ranked more important than any of those discussed in the survey, eight were concerned with conservation or preservation. The issues mentioned here were wild and scenic views (four times), endangered species, soil and water preservation, and clean drinking water (once each), and one respondent ranked environmental protection in general as the most important issue.
Three respondents ranked specific uses as most important. Agriculture, recreation and tourism, and municipal use were mentioned in this category. Two respondents mentioned issues as most important that are closely related to the question: should Wyoming secure portions of its water today so it can use the water in the future? One respondent wanted to make sure that Wyoming only lets water flow out-of-state that it cannot possibly use itself. The other respondent concerned with this issue wants water to flow out-of-state when it can provide greater benefits to more Americans downstream. For two other respondents the most important issue was if the project would be necessary or needed, without being more specific about what they mean by that. The remaining 11 issues that were ranked as most important can't be categorized. The following is a list of issues mentioned only by one respondent each:
C.3 DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS
Discriminant analysis was used to identify the demographic variables that are important to distinguish among the responses to the questions about the most important issue. The concept underlying discriminant analysis is to form linear combinations of the demographic variables that serve as a basis for distinction between the responses to the most- important-issue question. Such a linear discriminant equation takes the form D = B0+ B1X1 + . . . + BNXN, where:
The coefficients were determined so that the resulting equation best explains differences in responses to the question about the most important project evaluation issue. In identifying the most important demographic variables, the coefficients themselves are important. To allow comparison of different variables, standardized coefficients are calculated for the values of the demographic variables being standardized to a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1. These standardized coefficients reflect the importance of the variables associated with them for the distinction between the answer to the most-important-issue question.
Eighteen variables were found to be important. Table C.13 shows these variables and the associated Wilk's Lambda. These measure the proportion of the total variance in the discriminant scores not explained by differences among groups. Using the 18 demographic variables in Table C.14 to "predict" responses to the question about the most important issue yields a success rate of 43.11 percent. This means that each respondents' choice for the most important issue can be predicted about 43.11 percent of the time by using discriminant analysis with the 18 selected demographic variables. Without the demographic information, the expected success rate would be 25 percent (assuming four issues).
C.4 QUESTIONNAIRE SAMPLE
A sample copy of the questionnaire follows Table C.14.
TABLE C.14 Summary of Discriminant Analysis ________________________________________________________________ Variable Wilk's Lambda1 ________________________________________________________________ Self Evaluation .84960 Membership in Outdoor Council .73007 Years of Schooling .69641 Contributed Money to Organization .66924 Membership in Irrigation District .64098 Days of Hiking .61577 Days of Hunting Birds .59578 Number of People in Household .57673 Respondent's Age .55834 Membership in Rural Water District .53957 Respondent's Sex .52126 Received Benefits .50396 Membership in Heritage Society .48942 Days of Hunting Elk .47659 Participated in Planning .46525 Membership in Audobon Society .45311 Membership in Sierra Club .44253 Fly Fishing .43288 ________________________________________________________________ 1The Wilk's Lamdas measure the proportion of the total variance in the discriminant scores note explained by differences among groups.
WYOMING'S WATER RESOURCES:
A CITIZEN'S VIEW
A Statewide Survey of an
Important Issue Facing
This questionnaire should be completed by one of the principal wage-earners in your household.
Western Research Corporation
512 University Avenue
Laramie, Wyoming 82070
WYOMING'S WATER RESOURCES: A CITIZEN'S VIEW
This is a survey of the preferences and priorities of Wyoming citizens concerning Wyoming's Water Development Program. The survey consists of only a few questions, but to be able to respond you need to read the following background information.
The Wyoming Legislature established the Wyoming Water Development Program in 1979. The purpose of the program is To
"...foster, promote and encourage the optimal development of the state's human, industrial, mineral, agricultural, water and recreational resources...." Wyoming Statutes, Sec. 41-2-112 (Supp., 1986).
The program is administered by the Wyoming Water Development Commission (WWDC) and is funded by mineral severance taxes.
The Wyoming Water Development Program allows groups of Wyoming citizens (called project sponsors) to propose various types of water projects to the WWDC. Examples of such projects include new dams and reservoirs for irrigation water and recreation, ground water wells for municipal water, and the rehabilitation of existing water supply systems. The WWDC studies proposed projects and recommends certain projects to the Wyoming Legislature for further study and possible construction funding.
Several Wyoming water projects have been built under this program over the past 10 years. Because of limited water development funds, however, not all proposed projects can be built. As a result, the WWDC must attempt to choose the best projects to recommend to the legislature. The purpose of this survey is to help determine what the best water projects are from the perspective of Wyoming's citizens. This question involves two significant issues:
This brief survey deals primarily with these two important issues.
PART I - WATER USES
1. First, we would like to know what the best uses are for Wyoming's undeveloped water resources. Please CIRCLE the number from 1 (not important), to 5 (very important) which best describes how important each of the following uses is to you. Use the space provided to add any additional water uses you think are important.
Very Not Important Important (a) additional irrigation 5 4 3 2 1 water for Wyoming's farmers and ranchers. (b) new reservoirs for 5 4 3 2 1 fishing, boating, and other recreational activities. (c) additional municipal 5 4 3 2 1 water for Wyoming's cities and towns. (d) additional industrial 5 4 3 2 1 water to attract new companies to Wyoming. (e) more flood control 5 4 3 2 1 protection for Wyoming's cities, towns,and rural areas. (f) preserving instream 5 4 3 2 1 flows for the fisheries in Wyoming's rivers and streams. (g) additional hydroelec- 5 4 3 2 1 tric power for Wyoming's cities, towns, and rural areas. (h) developing adequate 5 4 3 2 1 water for future economic growth. (i) preserving wild and 5 4 3 2 1 scenic rivers and streams in their natural state.
Very Not Important Important (j) providing new economic 5 4 3 2 1 opportunities in areas of the state with high unemployment. (k) providing new economic 5 4 3 2 1 opportunities in your local area. (l) other ________________ 5 4 3 2 1 _____________________. (m) other ________________ 5 4 3 2 1 _____________________. (n) other ________________ 5 4 3 2 1 _____________________.
Please write on the back page if you need additional space.
PART 2 - EVALUATION CRITERIA
We would like to know how strongly you feel about ways of evaluating Wyoming water projects ("picking the best projects"). To assist you in answering these questions, please carefullyread and consider the following four defin- itions.
DEFINITION 1 - Project benefits and costs: What are they?
Water project benefits include the incomes and economic opportunities which result when additional water supplies are made available in Wyoming for:
Project costs include:
Some individuals believe that expected project benefits should always exceed project costs if a water project is to be built. Others disagree. One reason for this disagreement is that certain project attributes are difficult to express in benefit-cost terms (see definitions 2, 3, and 4).
DEFINITION 2 - Control of Wyoming's Water Resources: What is the Issue?
Wyoming now has more water than it can use in many parts of the state, but may need this extra water in the future. If water becomes scarce in the future, however, other states may try to keep Wyoming from developing and using this extra water. If Wyoming waits too long to develop this water, other states may try to block Wyoming's water development plans by initiating lawsuits and/or by intervening in the federal environmental permitting process for dams and reservoirs.
Wyoming could enhance its control over its water resources by building certain water projects now, even though benefits might be less than costs (Definition 1). Individuals differ as to whether Wyoming should take such measures now to pro- tect its water resources for the future.
DEFINITION 3 - Distribution of project benefits
The distribution of project benefits can vary widely depend- ing upon the location and the nature of a water project. For example, a reservoir designed to provide irrigation water to a few ranchers in a remote part of Wyoming may benefit rela- tively few individuals. On the other hand, a reservoir designed to provide irrigation water, hydroelectric power, and water based recreation near a large community may benefit many Wyoming residents.
If Wyoming does not carefully evaluate the location and nature of future water projects, benefits may not be distributed in an "equitable" manner. That is, citizens who pay the costs for water development may not receive the bene- fits. Individuals differ as to how important the equitable distribution of benefits is with respect to the Wyoming Water Development Program.
DEFINITION 4 - Preservation and development: What are the concepts?
Preservation means leaving certain Wyoming rivers and streams in their natural state, unaltered by man's activities. Development means altering the river or stream through ac- tivities such as dams and reservoirs.
As Wyoming develops its water resources, there may be fewer rivers and streams that remain in their "wild and scenic" state. Meanwhile, the number of rivers and streams that are developed will become greater. Individuals in the State differ as to the appropriate balance between the preservation and development of Wyoming's water resources.
2. With the above definitions in mind, please consider each of the following statements separately, and indicate whether you strongly agree, agree, don't know, disagree, or strongly disagree with each statement. (Please circle the appropriate code.)
Strongly Indif- Strongly Statement Agree Agree ferent Disagree Disagree ___________________________________________________________________ (a) Wyoming water projects should be built only if project benefits exceed projects costs. SA A I D SD (b) Wyoming should develop its water resources before other states take our water, regardless of whether project benefits exceed costs. SA A I D SD (c) Wyoming water projects should be built only if project benefits will be distributed equitably, i.e. not confined to one small area or group of people. SA A I D SD (d) Wyoming must protect some of its rivers form dams and reservoirs to pre- serve their wild and scenic beauty. SA A I D SD 3. The criteria described above can be used to decide which Wyoming water projects should be built and which should not. these criteria can be summarized as follows for one specific water project: Issue Description a. Will the water project's benefits be greater than its costs? b. Will the water project increase Wyoming's "control" over its water resources? c. Will the project disturb the balance between preservation and development of Wyoming's water resources? d. Will the project's benefits be confined to a small group, or be distributed widely across the state? Do you believe that there are other issues (not mentioned in a through d above) that should be considered in deciding whether or not to build a Wyoming water project? _____YES _____NO 4. If your answer to Question 3 is YES, what are these other issues? Issue Description e. ____________________________________________ f. ____________________________________________ g. ____________________________________________ h. ____________________________________________ Please feel free to write on the back page if you need more space. 5. Please review issues (a), (b), (c), and (d) in Question 3, along with any additional issues you defined in Question 4. in your opinion, which of these issues are the most important and least important in deciding whether or not to build a Wyoming water project? MOST IMPORTANT ISSUE ___________________________________. NEXT MOST IMPORTANT ISSUE ______________________________. NEXT MOST IMPORTANT ISSUE ______________________________. NEXT MOST IMPORTANT ISSUE ______________________________. NEXT MOST IMPORTANT ISSUE ______________________________. NEXT MOST IMPORTANT ISSUE ______________________________. NEXT MOST IMPORTANT ISSUE ______________________________. LEAST IMPORTANT ISSUE __________________________________. Please check to see that you have ranked all of the issues, including yours.
PART 3 - INFORMATION REGARDING YOU AND YOUR FAMILY Thank you for your views on the above issues. To completely understand your preferences, we need some additional information. This information will be confidential and analyzed in a manner in which it will be impossible to identify you or your household. 6. Occupation You Your Spouse _____________ ______________ 7. Age You Your Spouse _____________ ______________ 8. Sex You Your Spouse _____________ ______________ 9. Born in Wyoming You Your Spouse Yes____ No_____ Yes____ No_____ 10. Number of years you have been a resident You Your Spouse _____________ ______________ 11. Number of people living in your household __________ 12. Your educational background: You Your Spouse _____ Elementary school _____ Elementary school _____ High school graduate _____ High school graduate _____ Some college _____ Some college _____ Bachelor's degree _____ Bachelor's degree _____ Graduate work _____ Graduate work _____ Advanced degree _____ Advanced degree 13. How many days of recreational activities have you and your spouse engaged in during the past 12 months? (Please estimate the number of days for each activity below): You Your Spouse _____ Fishing on rivers _____ Fishing on rivers and streams and streams _____ Lake or reservoir _____ Lake or reservoir fishing fishing _____ Recreational boating _____ Recreational boating on lakes or on lakes or reservoirs reservoirs _____ Water skiing on _____ Water skiing on lakes or reservoirs lakes or reservoirs _____ Swimming in lakes _____ Swimming in lakes or reservoirs or reservoirs _____ Camping _____ Camping _____ Hiking _____ Hiking _____ Picnicking _____ Picnicking _____ White water rafting _____ White water rafting _____ Hunting _____ Hunting _____ Antelope _____ Antelope _____ Elk _____ Elk _____ Birds _____ Birds _____ Deer _____ Deer _____ Moose _____ Moose 14. Do you fly fish? You Your Spouse Yes ___ No ___ Yes ___ No ___ 15. Do you or your spouse belong to any organizations that are active in water-related issues (either national or statewide)? Examples might be: Please check if you belong A. Irrigation districts __________ B. Outdoor Council __________ C. Audubon Society __________ D. Rural water districts __________ E. Sierra Club __________ F. Heritage Society __________ G. Other (please provide the name) _______________________________ __________ _______________________________ __________ _______________________________ __________ 16. Have you or your spouse ever contributed money to any of these organizations? _____ Yes _____ No 17. Do you own or lease water rights in Wyoming? _____ Yes _____ No 18. Have you or your spouse participated in any way in the planning of a state funded water project? _____ Yes _____ No 19. Have you received benefits (to your knowledge) from a state funded water project? _____ Yes _____ No If yes, which project(s)? ___________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 20. Consider a scale of (1) to (5) where (1) represents a "developer" (i.e., develop as much as possible) of Wyoming's water and (5) represents a preservationist (i.e., leave Wyoming's water resources in their natural state as much as possible). How would you rank yourself (circle one): "Developer" "Preservationist" 1 2 3 4 5 21. Approximate combined annual gross income of all members in the household (check 1): _____ under $10,000 _____ $10,000-$19,999 _____ $20,000-$29,999 _____ $30,000-$39,999 _____ $40,000-$49,999 _____ $50,000-$59,999 _____ $60,000-$69,999 Additional comments? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR HELP. PLEASE USE THE ENCLOSED POSTAGE PAID ENVELOPE TO MAIL YOUR RESPONSE.
90-12 Table of Contents
Water Resources Publications List
Water Resources Data System Library | Water Resources Data System Homepage